NAMPT-dependent NAD+ biosynthesis controls circadian metabolism in a tissue-specific manner

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Molecular clocks in the periphery coordinate tissue-specific daily biorhythms by integrating input from the hypothalamic master clock and intracellular metabolic signals. One such key metabolic signal is the cellular concentration of NAD +, which oscillates along with its biosynthetic enzyme, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). NAD + levels feed back into the clock to influence rhythmicity of biological functions, yet whether this metabolic fine-tuning occurs ubiquitously across cell types and is a core clock feature is unknown. Here, we show that NAMPT-dependent control over the molecular clock varies substantially between tissues. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) requires NAMPT to sustain the amplitude of the core clock, whereas rhythmicity in white adipose tissue (WAT) is only moderately dependent on NAD + biosynthesis, and the skeletal muscle clock is completely refractory to loss of NAMPT. In BAT and WAT, NAMPT differentially orchestrates oscillation of clock-controlled gene networks and the diurnality of metabolite levels. NAMPT coordinates the rhythmicity of TCA cycle intermediates in BAT, but not in WAT, and loss of NAD + abolishes these oscillations similarly to high-fat diet-induced circadian disruption. Moreover, adipose NAMPT depletion improved the ability of animals to defend body temperature during cold stress but in a time-of-day-independent manner. Thus, our findings reveal that peripheral molecular clocks and metabolic biorhythms are shaped in a highly tissue-specific manner by NAMPT-dependent NAD + synthesis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2220102120
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2023

    Research areas

  • Animals, NAD/metabolism, Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/genetics, Circadian Rhythm/physiology, Adipose Tissue, Brown/metabolism, Obesity/metabolism, Cytokines/metabolism

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