Human blood plasma biomarkers of diet and weight loss among centrally obese subjects in a New Nordic Diet intervention

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Scope: The New Nordic Diet (NND) has been shown to promote weight loss and lower blood pressure amongst obese people. This study investigates blood plasma metabolite and lipoprotein biomarkers differentiating subjects who followed Average Danish Diet (ADD) or NND. The study also evaluates how the individual response to the diet is reflected in the metabolic differences between NND subjects who lost or maintained their pre-intervention weight.

Methods: Centrally obese Danes (BMI >25) followed NND (90 subjects) or ADD (56 subjects) for 6 months. Fasting blood plasma samples, collected at three time-points during the intervention, were screened for metabolites and lipoproteins (LPs) using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In total, 154 metabolites and 65 lipoproteins were analysed.

Results: The NND showed a relatively small but significant effect on the plasma metabolome and lipoprotein profiles, with explained variations ranging from 0.6% for lipoproteins to 4.8% for metabolites. A total of 38 metabolites and 11 lipoproteins were found to be affected by the NND. The primary biomarkers differentiating the two diets were found to be HDL-1 cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, phospholipids, and ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyric acid, acetone, and acetoacetic acid). The increased levels of ketone bodies detected in the NND group inversely associated with the decrease in diastolic blood pressure of the NND subjects. The study also showed that body weight loss among the NND subjects was weakly associated with plasma levels of citrate.

Conclusion: The main plasma metabolites associated with NND were acetate, methanol and 3-hydroxybutyrate. The metabolic changes associated with the NND-driven weight loss are mostly pronounced in energy and lipid metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1198531
JournalFrontiers in Nutrition
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2023 Trimigno, Khakimov, Rasmussen, Dragsted, Larsen, Astrup and Engelsen.

    Research areas

  • Faculty of Science - Plasma metabolomics, 1H NMR, ketone bodies, Weight loss, Lipoproteins

Number of downloads are based on statistics from Google Scholar and

No data available

ID: 358727098