Inflammatory Markers as Predictors of Shunt Dependency and Functional Outcome in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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The mechanisms underlying post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) development following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are not fully understood, which complicates informed clinical decisions regarding the duration of external ventricular drain (EVD) treatment and prevents the prediction of shunt-dependency in the individual patient. The aim of this study was to identify potential inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of PHH and, thus, shunt-dependency and functional outcome in patients with SAH. This study was a prospective observational study designed to evaluate inflammatory markers in ventricular CSF. In total, 31 Patients with SAH who required an EVD between June 2019 and September 2021 at the Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were collected twice from each patient and analyzed for 92 inflammatory markers via proximity extension assay (PEA), and the prognostic ability of the markers was investigated. In total, 12 patients developed PHH, while 19 were weaned from their EVD. Their 6-month functional outcome was determined with the modified Rankin Scale. Of the 92 analyzed inflammatory biomarkers, 79 were identified in the samples. Seven markers (SCF, OPG, LAP TGFβ1, Flt3L, FGF19, CST5, and CSF1) were found to be predictors of shunt dependency, and four markers (TNFα, CXCL5, CCL20, and IL8) were found to be predictors of functional outcome. In this study, we identified promising inflammatory biomarkers that are able to predict (i) the functional outcome in patients with SAH and (ii) the development of PHH and, thus, the shunt dependency of the individual patients. These inflammatory markers may have the potential to be employed as predictive biomarkers of shunt dependency and functional outcome following SAH and could, as such, be applied in the clinic.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer997
TidsskriftBiomedicines
Vol/bind11
Udgave nummer4
Antal sider14
ISSN2227-9059
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation (Tandem grant NNF17OC0024718 to N.M. and M.J.).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

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