Clinical implications and guidelines for CKD in type 2 diabetes
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Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complication of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of CKD in T2D is increasing due to rising numbers of persons with T2D. Multiple clinical trials have been conducted testing novel therapies to reduce the progression of CKD, cardiovascular morbidity, in particular hospitalization for heart failure, and mortality. Results of these clinical trials have informed guidelines for the management of CKD in T2D. Methods The epidemiology of CKD in T2D and the process of guideline writing, including data gathering, grading and consensus development, were reviewed. Recent guidelines for the management of CKD in T2D that include recent renal outcome clinical trials are reported, along with supporting evidence. Results All current guidelines recommend annual screening for CKD, control of blood pressure and glucose, although the target levels and background therapy recommendations vary. Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibition is uniformly recommended. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition with proven agents is recommended by all guidelines, with minor variations in suggested estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria levels. Finerenone, the first nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with renal outcome data, is recommended by the most recent guideline available. Conclusions Current guidelines continue to recommend screening for CKD, blood pressure control using RAS inhibition as first-line therapy, and glucose control. SGLT2 inhibition and finerenone are recent additions to current guidelines to improve CKD outcomes in T2D, based on robust clinical trial data.
|Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
|Udgivet - 2023