Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes Is Associated With Disturbances in TCA, Lipid, and Glucose Metabolism

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Introduction: Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. To explore metabolic mechanisms associated with CAN we investigated associations between serum metabolites and CAN in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Materials and Methods: Cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs) (heart rate response to: deep breathing; lying-to-standing test; and the Valsalva maneuver) were used to diagnose CAN in 302 persons with T1D. More than one pathological CARTs defined the CAN diagnosis. Serum metabolomics and lipidomic profiles were analyzed with two complementary non-targeted mass-spectrometry methods. Cross-sectional associations between metabolites and CAN were assessed by linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results: Participants were median (IQR) aged 55(49, 63) years, 48% males with diabetes duration 39(32, 47) years, HbA1c 63(55,69) mmol/mol and 34% had CAN. A total of 75 metabolites and 106 lipids were analyzed. In crude models, the CAN diagnosis was associated with higher levels of hydroxy fatty acids (2,4- and 3,4-dihydroxybutanoic acids, 4−deoxytetronic acid), creatinine, sugar derivates (ribitol, ribonic acid, myo-inositol), citric acid, glycerol, phenols, phosphatidylcholines and lower levels of free fatty acids and the amino acid methionine (p<0.05). Upon adjustment, positive associations with the CAN diagnoses were retained for hydroxy fatty acids, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle-based sugar derivates, citric acid, and phenols (P<0.05). Conclusion: Metabolic pathways, including the TCA cycle, hydroxy fatty acids, phosphatidylcholines and sugar derivatives are associated with the CAN diagnosis in T1D. These pathway may be part of the pathogeneses leading to CAN and may be modifiable risk factors for the complication.

TidsskriftFrontiers in Endocrinology
StatusUdgivet - 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The work leading to this article received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework programme under grant agreement no. HEALTH-F2-2009-241544 (SysKID consortium). TA was supported by Novo Nordisk Foundation (Steno Collaborative Grant) NNF18OC0052457.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Hansen, Suvitaival, Theilade, Mattila, Lajer, Trošt, Ahonen, Hansen, Legido-Quigley, Rossing and Ahluwalia.

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