U-Sleep: resilient high-frequency sleep staging
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Sleep disorders affect a large portion of the global population and are strong predictors of morbidity and all-cause mortality. Sleep staging segments a period of sleep into a sequence of phases providing the basis for most clinical decisions in sleep medicine. Manual sleep staging is difficult and time-consuming as experts must evaluate hours of polysomnography (PSG) recordings with electroencephalography (EEG) and electrooculography (EOG) data for each patient. Here, we present U-Sleep, a publicly available, ready-to-use deep-learning-based system for automated sleep staging ( sleep.ai.ku.dk ). U-Sleep is a fully convolutional neural network, which was trained and evaluated on PSG recordings from 15,660 participants of 16 clinical studies. It provides accurate segmentations across a wide range of patient cohorts and PSG protocols not considered when building the system. U-Sleep works for arbitrary combinations of typical EEG and EOG channels, and its special deep learning architecture can label sleep stages at shorter intervals than the typical 30 s periods used during training. We show that these labels can provide additional diagnostic information and lead to new ways of analyzing sleep. U-Sleep performs on par with state-of-the-art automatic sleep staging systems on multiple clinical datasets, even if the other systems were built specifically for the particular data. A comparison with consensus-scores from a previously unseen clinic shows that U-Sleep performs as accurately as the best of the human experts. U-Sleep can support the sleep staging workflow of medical experts, which decreases healthcare costs, and can provide highly accurate segmentations when human expertize is lacking.
|npj Digital Medicine
|Udgivet - 15 apr. 2021
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