System mapping of antimicrobial resistance to combat a rising global health crisis

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelfagfællebedømt

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases the effectiveness of antimicrobials to treat bacterial infections in humans and animals. The increased occurrence of AMR in bacterial population in humans, animals, and the environment requires the measures to combat a rising global health crisis. The aim of this research was to present current knowledge on AMR in a system map and to identify potential explanations of former identified variables significantly associated with AMR. This study applies a systems thinking approach and uses feedback loops to visualize the interconnections between human, animal, and environmental components in a circular AMR system map model. First, a literature review focusing on AMR and socioeconomic factors, wicked problem, and system change was carried out, which was then processed in a system map to conceptualize the present core challenges of AMR via feedback loops. Second, to investigate possible underlying values of the society and those that influence humans' behavior in the present AMR system, an iceberg model was established. Third, leverage points were assessed to estimate which kinds of interventions would have the greatest effect to mitigate AMR in the system. The present AMR system map implies the potential to identify and visualize important risk factors that are direct or indirect drivers of AMR. Our results show that the tool of system mapping, which interconnects animals, humans, and environment in one model, can approach AMR holistically and be used to assess potential powerful entry points for system wide interventions. This study shows that system maps are beneficial as a model to predict the relative effect of different interventions and adapt to rapidly changing environments in a complex world. Systems thinking is considered as a complementing approach to the statistical thinking, and further research is needed to evaluate the use of such tools for the development and monitoring of interventions.
TidsskriftFrontiers in Public Health
Antal sider13
StatusUdgivet - 2022
Eksternt udgivetJa

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