Reviewing Introduction Histories, Pathways, Invasiveness, and Impact of Non-Indigenous Species in Danish Marine Waters

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Non-indigenous species (NIS) are of concern for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning. We present an updated list of NIS, including cryptogenic species, from Danish marine waters containing 123 species. Benthic invertebrates (36%) and phytoplankton (28%) dominate the list, but fish (15%) and macroalgae (13%) are also important. The Limfjord in Northern Jutland emerges as a hotspot for the introduction of NIS. Data from multiple sources were included, i.e., the National Monitoring Program (NOVANA), the National Fish Atlas project, the citizen science project, research articles, and annual national reports of the ICES working group ITMO. Forty-six NIS species were subject to expert judging using a modified Harmonia protocol; 19 were found to fulfil the four selected criteria identifying a species as being ‘invasive’. Additionally, 38 species, not yet recorded in Danish waters, were evaluated using the same method, and 31 were found to fulfil the ‘invasive’ criteria. For nine selected species, introduction history, distribution maps, and time-series diagrams are presented. Our data document that the national monitoring efforts should be expanded to record macrozooplankton, coastal fish, and mobile epibenthic species. Furthermore, the national data repository,, should be expanded to enable more detailed documentation of new NIS records.

Udgave nummer3
Antal sider44
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
C.J. was financed by VILLUM FONDEN, Denmark with YIP Grant ID 25512. H.J. was financed by the HORIZONEUROPE program project GES4SEAS with grant ID 101059877. A.B. was financed by the Innovation Fund Denmark (Climate Feed, grant No: 9067-00024A). B.S. was financed by the Danish EPA (Consensus Conference on Invasive Species, 21 June 2021). P.A.U.S. was financed by the Danish EPA (Developing GES indicator for NIS).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

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