Lung ultrasound findings following COVID-19 hospitalization: A prospective longitudinal cohort study

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  • Caroline Espersen
  • Elke Platz
  • Alia Saed Alhakak
  • Morten Sengeløv
  • Niklas Dyrby Johansen
  • Filip Søskov Davidovski
  • Jacob Christensen
  • Reza Jabbari
  • Matias Greve Lindholm
  • Ole Peter Kristiansen
  • Klaus Nielsen Jeschke
  • Pradeesh Sivapalan
  • Søren Helbo Skaarup
  • Mats Christian Højbjerg Lassen
  • Kristoffer Grundtvig Skaarup

Background: Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a useful tool for diagnosis and monitoring in patients with active COVID-19-infection. However, less is known about the changes in LUS findings after a hospitalization for COVID-19. Methods: In a prospective, longitudinal study in patients with COVID-19 enrolled from non-ICU hospital units, adult patients underwent 8-zone LUS and blood sampling both during the hospitalization and 2–3 months after discharge. LUS images were analyzed blinded to clinical variables and outcomes. Results: A total of 71 patients with interpretable LUS at baseline and follow up (mean age 64 years, 61% male, 24% with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)) were included. The follow-up LUS was performed a median of 72 days after the initial LUS performed during hospitalization. At baseline, 87% had pathologic LUS findings in ≥1 zone (e.g. ≥3 B-lines, confluent B-lines or subpleural or lobar consolidation), whereas 30% had pathologic findings at follow-up (p < 0.001). The total number of B-lines and LUS score decreased significantly from hospitalization to follow-up (median 17 vs. 4, p < 0.001 and 4 vs. 0, p < 0.001, respectively). On the follow-up LUS, 28% of all patients had ≥3 B-lines in ≥1 zone, whereas in those with ARDS during the baseline hospitalization (n = 17), 47% had ≥3 B-lines in ≥1 zone. Conclusion: LUS findings improved significantly from hospitalization to follow-up 2–3 months after discharge in COVID-19 survivors. However, persistent B-lines were frequent at follow-up, especially among those who initially had ARDS. LUS seems to be a promising method to monitor COVID-19 lung changes over time. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04377035.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer106826
TidsskriftRespiratory Medicine
Vol/bind197
ISSN0954-6111
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
TBS, together with KGS and MHL, received a research grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation to conduct the study. Europcar Denmark provided cars for KGS and MHL to transport the equipment from hospital to hospital. TBS received funds from Herlev and Gentofte Hospital and the Lundbeck foundation while conducting this study. The research salary of PS was sponsored by Herlev and Gentofte Hospital . The sponsors had no role in the design and interpretation of the data.

Funding Information:
TBS, together with KGS and MHL, received a research grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation to conduct the study. Europcar Denmark provided cars for KGS and MHL to transport the equipment from hospital to hospital. TBS received funds from Herlev and Gentofte Hospital and the Lundbeck foundation while conducting this study. The research salary of PS was sponsored by Herlev and Gentofte Hospital. The sponsors had no role in the design and interpretation of the data.TBS reports receiving research grants from Sanofi Pasteur and GE Healthcare, is a Steering Committee member of the Amgen financed GALACTIC-HF trial, on advisory boards for Sanofi Pasteur and Amgen, and has received speaker honorariums from Novartis and Sanofi Pasteur.EP has received research support from the NIH, and consulting fees from scPharmaceuticals outside the submitted work. Her employer has received support from Novartis for consulting work outside the submitted work.

Funding Information:
TBS reports receiving research grants from Sanofi Pasteur and GE Healthcare , is a Steering Committee member of the Amgen financed GALACTIC-HF trial, on advisory boards for Sanofi Pasteur and Amgen, and has received speaker honorariums from Novartis and Sanofi Pasteur.

Funding Information:
EP has received research support from the NIH , and consulting fees from scPharmaceuticals outside the submitted work. Her employer has received support from Novartis for consulting work outside the submitted work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors

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