Field evaluation of anticoccidial efficacy: A novel approach demonstrates reduced efficacy of toltrazuril against ovine Eimeria spp. in Norway

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Ane Odden
  • Denwood, Matt
  • Snorre Stuen
  • Lucy J. Robertson
  • Antonio Ruiz
  • Inger Sofie Hamnes
  • Lisbeth Hektoen
  • Heidi L. Enemark

Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause reduced welfare, increased mortality, and substantial economic losses, and anticoccidials are crucial for their control. Recent reports of toltrazuril resistance in pigs, and anecdotal reports of reduced anticoccidial efficacy in lambs, necessitate evaluation of anticoccidial efficacy. Due to the substantial lifecycle differences between nematodes and coccidia, current WAAVP methods for assessing anthelmintic efficacy are not suitable for such evaluations. Faecal samples were collected from 8 pairs of twin lambs from 36 Norwegian sheep farms 6–8 days after turnout. One twin of each pair was then treated with 20 mg/kg toltrazuril and a second faecal sample from all lambs was collected 7–11 days later. Oocyst excretion rate in all samples was determined using McMasters. Suitability of treatment timing was investigated by evaluating the increase in mean log oocyst excretion in untreated lambs. Based on comparisons between groups, a threshold of ≥0.75 (13 farms) was used to identify farms where drug efficacy could be assessed with confidence, drug efficacy on farms with increases of ≥0.5 but <0.75 (7 farms) were evaluated with caution, and drug efficacy on farms with increases of <0.5 (16 farms) was not estimated. Reduction in oocyst excretion between samples from treated lambs compared with controls from the 20 farms with a threshold of ≥0.5 were then analysed using a generalised linear mixed model. The results were classified based on 95% CI obtained using parametric bootstrapping. Among these 20 farms, two exhibited reduced drug efficacy (upper 95% CI < 95%), 13 had good efficacy (lower 95% CI > 90%), and for 5 the results were inconclusive. This is the first evidence-based report of reduced anticoccidial efficacy in ovine Eimeria spp. Additionally, we highlight the problem of sub-optimal timing of treatment (16/36 farms), which could potentially result in incorrect conclusions being reached regarding lack of drug efficacy.

TidsskriftInternational Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)304-311
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 1 aug. 2018

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