Enhancing the textural and rheological properties of fermentation-induced pea protein emulsion gels with transglutaminase

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The aim of this study was to assess how transglutaminase (TG) impacts the microstructure, texture, and rheological properties of fermentation-induced pea protein emulsion gels. Additionally, the study examined the influence of storage time on the functional properties of these gels. Fermentation-induced pea protein gels were produced in the presence or absence of TG and stored for 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. Texture analysis, rheological measurements, moisture content and microstructure evaluation with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3D image analysis were conducted to explore the effects of TG on the structural and rheological properties of the fermented samples. The porosity of the protein networks in the pea gels decreased in the presence of TG, the storage modulus increased and the textural characteristics were significantly improved, resulting in harder and more springy gels. The gel porosity increased in gels with and without TG after storage but the effect of storage on textural and rheological properties was limited, indicating limited structural rearrangement once the fermentation-induced pea protein emulsion gels are formed. Greater coalescence was observed for oil droplets within the gel matrix after 16 weeks of storage in the absence of TG, consistent with these protein structures being weaker than the more structurally stable TG-treated gels. This study shows that TG treatment is a powerful tool to enhance the textural and rheological properties of fermentation-induced pea protein emulsion gels.

TidsskriftSoft Matter
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)133-143
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Sally Gras and Lydia Ong are supported by The Dairy Innovation Hub. The authors thank the Biological Optical Microscopy Platform (BOMP) at The Bio21 Molecular Science and Technology Institute for granting access to confocal microscopy and image analysis software, and Olga Glagovskaia from CSIRO Agriculture and Food for nitrogen analysis of the solubilised PPI suspensions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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