Development of a Symmetric Echo-Planar Spectroscopy Imaging Framework for Hyperpolarized C-13 Imaging in a Clinical PET/MR Scanner

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Here, we developed a symmetric echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence for hyperpolarized 13C imaging on a clinical hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging system. The pulse sequence uses parallel reconstruction pipelines to separately reconstruct data from odd-and-even gradient echoes to reduce artifacts from gradient imbalances. The ramp-sampled data in the spatiotemporal frequency space are regridded to compensate for the chemical-shift displacements. Unaliasing of nonoverlapping peaks outside of the sampled spectral width was performed to double the effective spectral width. The sequence was compared with conventional phase-encoded chemical-shift imaging (CSI) in phantoms, and it was evaluated in a canine cancer patient with ameloblastoma after injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. The relative signal-to-noise ratio of EPSI with respect to CSI was 0.88, which is consistent with the decrease in sampling efficiency due to ramp sampling. Data regridding in the spatiotemporal frequency space significantly reduced spatial blurring compared with direct fast Fourier transform. EPSI captured the spatial distributions of both metabolites and their temporal dynamics in vivo with an in-plane spatial resolution of 5 × 9 mm2 and a temporal resolution of 3 seconds. Significantly higher spatial and temporal resolution for delineating anatomical structures in vivo was achieved for EPSI metabolic maps than for CSI maps, which suffered spatiotemporal blurring. The EPSI sequence showed promising results in terms of short acquisition time and sufficient spectral bandwidth of 500 Hz, allowing to adjust the trade-off between signal-to-noise ratio and encoding speed.
TidsskriftTomography - A Journal for Imaging Research
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)110-122
StatusUdgivet - 2018

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