Colonization of the Southern Hemisphere by Sagina and Colobanthus (Caryophyllaceae)

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Colobanthus (23 species) and Sagina (30–33 species) together are sister to Facchinia. Whereas Facchinia is distributed in western Eurasia, Colobanthus is almost exclusively distributed in the Southern Hemisphere, and Sagina is distributed in both hemispheres with the highest species diversity in western Eurasia. We examined: 1. Whether Sagina and Colobanthus are monophyletic sister genera, 2. Where the two genera originated and how many times dispersal between hemispheres occurred, and 3. Which colonization routes between hemispheres were taken. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Colobanthus and Sagina using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and two plastid spacers (cpDNA) of altogether 158 ingroup samples of 45 species, and performed molecular dating and ancestral area reconstructions. Sagina and Colobanthus were confirmed as monophyletic sister genera. Biogeographical reconstructions based on ITS and cpDNA showed that Sagina reached the Southern Hemisphere in Australasia or in Africa. For Colobanthus, patterns were less clear and less well-supported: ITS showed Australasia as the region of entry, but cpDNA implied that the Southern Hemisphere may have been entered in America. The extant distributions and the biogeographical histories of Colobanthus and Sagina show both similarities and dissimilarities. This illustrates that biogeographical histories, even of closely related and ecologically very similar lineages, can be highly idiosyncratic.

TidsskriftPlant Systematics and Evolution
Antal sider21
StatusUdgivet - 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
EMB was funded by NERC‐CONICYT Grant NE/P003079/1 and Carlsberg Foundation Grant CF18‐0267.

Funding Information:
We would like to thank the AFROALP II team for collecting S. afroalpina at Mt. Kenya, and Berit Gehrke (Bergen, Norway) for sequencing and granting access to sequence data of the AFROALP II project. We thank Osvaldo J. Vidal for access to the HIP herbarium, and the curators and herbarium staff of AAS, ALA, BC, C, CANB, CIC, E, HIP, HO, JEPS, KHD, MJG, MICH, MONTU, OSC, P, RM, RNG, UC, W, WTU and WU for providing plant material for genetic analyses. Thanks to Bart van de Vijver for sampling two specimens in ?le Amsterdam. We also would like to thank Marie Claire Veranso-Libalah (Mainz, Germany) for helping with the biogeographic analyses and Doris Franke (Mainz, Germany) for figure optimization. We acknowledge helpful comments by four anonymous reviewers of this and an earlier version of this paper.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature.

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