Keratinocyte Carcinoma and Photoprevention: The Protective Actions of Repurposed Pharmaceuticals, Phytochemicals and Vitamins

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Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) arising from sun exposure represents a major risk factor in the development of keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs). UVR exposure induces dysregulated signal transduction, oxidative stress, inflammation, immunosuppression and DNA damage, all of which promote the induction and development of photocarcinogenesis. Because the incidence of KCs is increasing, better prevention strategies are necessary. In the concept of photoprevention, protective compounds are administered either topically or systemically to prevent the effects of UVR and the development of skin cancer. In this review, we provide descriptions of the pathways underlying photocarcinogenesis and an overview of selected photoprotective compounds, such as repurposed pharmaceuticals, plant-derived phytochemicals and vitamins. We discuss the protective potential of these compounds and their effects in pre-clinical and human trials, summarising the mechanisms of action involved in preventing photocarcinogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3684
Issue number15
Number of pages29
Publication statusPublished - 2021

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