Dietary macronutrient composition impacts gene regulation in adipose tissue

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  • Kathryn M. Farris
  • Alistair M. Senior
  • Débora R. Sobreira
  • Robert M. Mitchell
  • Zachary T. Weber
  • Lars R. Ingerslev
  • Barrès, Romain
  • Stephen J. Simpson
  • Angela J. Crean
  • Marcelo A. Nobrega

Diet is a key lifestyle component that influences metabolic health through several factors, including total energy intake and macronutrient composition. While the impact of caloric intake on gene expression and physiological phenomena in various tissues is well described, the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on these parameters is less well studied. Here, we use the Nutritional Geometry framework to investigate the role of macronutrient composition on metabolic function and gene regulation in adipose tissue. Using ten isocaloric diets that vary systematically in their proportion of energy from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, we find that gene expression and splicing are highly responsive to macronutrient composition, with distinct sets of genes regulated by different macronutrient interactions. Specifically, the expression of many genes associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome is responsive to dietary fat content. Splicing and expression changes occur in largely separate gene sets, highlighting distinct mechanisms by which dietary composition influences the transcriptome and emphasizing the importance of considering splicing changes to more fully capture the gene regulation response to environmental changes such as diet. Our study provides insight into the gene regulation plasticity of adipose tissue in response to macronutrient composition, beyond the already well-characterized response to caloric intake.

Original languageEnglish
Article number194
JournalCommunications Biology
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - 2024

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