RhoG signals in parallel with Rac1 and Cdc42
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RhoG is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares high sequence identity with Rac1 and Cdc42. Previous studies suggested that RhoG mediates its effects through activation of Rac1 and Cdc42. To further understand the mechanism of RhoG signaling, we studied its potential activation pathways, downstream signaling properties, and functional relationship to Rac1 and Cdc42 in vivo. First, we determined that RhoG was regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors that also activate Rac and/or Cdc42. Vav2 (which activates RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) and to a lesser degree Dbs (which activates RhoA and Cdc42) activated RhoG in vitro. Thus, RhoG may be activated concurrently with Rac1 and Cdc42. Second, some effectors of Rac/Cdc42 (IQGAP2, MLK-3, PLD1), but not others (e.g. PAKs, POSH, WASP, Par-6, IRSp53), interacted with RhoG in a GTP-dependent manner. Third, consistent with this differential interaction with effectors, activated RhoG stimulated some (JNK and Akt) but not other (SRF and NF-kappaB) downstream signaling targets of activated Rac1 and Cdc42. Finally, transient transduction of a tat-tagged Rac1(17N) dominant-negative fusion protein inhibited the induction of lamellipodia by the Rac-specific activator, Tiam1, but not by activated RhoG. Together, these data argue that RhoG function is mediated by signals independent of Rac1 and Cdc42 activation and instead by direct utilization of a subset of common effectors.
|The Journal of Biological Chemistry
|Udgivet - 6 dec. 2002