Topical Delivery of Nivolumab, a Therapeutic Antibody, by Fractional Laser and Pneumatic Injection

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Background and Objectives PD-L1 is a tumor ligand that binds to the PD-1 receptor on immune cells, thereby inhibiting the antitumor immune response. The antibody nivolumab is a PD-1 inhibitor, Food and Drug Administration approved for systemic treatment of several aggressive cancer types. Topically applied nivolumab may hold potential as a future strategy to treat keratinocyte cancer, but its molecular properties preclude unassisted topical uptake. The aim of this study was to investigate uptake and biodistribution of topically delivered nivolumab, assisted by two physical enhancement techniques with different delivery kinetics; ablative fractional laser (AFL) and electronically controlled pneumatic injection (EPI). Study Design/Materials and Methods In vitro porcine skin was exposed to CO(2)AFL (20 mJ/mb, 5% density), followed by passive diffusion of nivolumab in a Franz cell (1 mg/ml, 18 hours,n = 6) or treated with EPI (4 bar) for immediate delivery of nivolumab (1 mg/ml, 10 minutes,n = 6). The resulting nivolumab skin concentrations were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at three skin depths (100, 500, and 1500 mu m), comparing the uptake from assisted delivery with intact skin. Biodistribution of nivolumab in the skin for all interventions was visualized by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and fluorescence microscopy. Results Delivery of nivolumab by AFL-assisted passive diffusion and immediate EPI both resulted in significantly enhanced uptake of nivolumab in all skin depths compared with intact skin (P <0.05). With AFL, nivolumab concentrations reached 86.3 mu g/cm(3)(100 mu m), 105.8 mu g/cm(3)(500 mu m), and 19.3 mu g/cm(3)(1500 mu m), corresponding to 2-10% of the applied concentration, with the highest deposition in the mid dermis. Immediate EPI delivered 429.4 mu g/cm(3)(100 mu m), 584.9 mu g/cm(3)(500 mu m), and 295.9 mu g/cm(3)(1500 mu m) into the skin, corresponding to 29-58% of the applied nivolumab concentration. From qualitative visualization of the biodistribution, it appeared that nivolumab distributed in a horizontal and continuous homogenous band in the upper and mid dermis through AFL-exposed skin, whereas EPI-delivery showed a deep focal deposition extending into the deep dermis. Conclusions AFL-assisted passive diffusion and immediate EPI-assisted delivery show the potential to deliver therapeutic antibodies locally. Futurein vivoand pharmacokinetic studies would reveal the full potential for topical antibody delivery by energy-based devices. Lasers Surg. Med. (c) 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC

TidsskriftLasers in Surgery and Medicine
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)154-161
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 2021

ID: 249858741