Plasma metabolite predictors of metabolic syndrome incidence and reversion

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  • Zhila Semnani-Azad
  • Estefanía Toledo
  • Nancy Babio
  • Miguel Ruiz-Canela
  • Clemens Wittenbecher
  • Cristina Razquin
  • Fenglei Wang
  • Courtney Dennis
  • Amy Deik
  • Clary B. Clish
  • Dolores Corella
  • Montserrat Fitó
  • Ramon Estruch
  • Fernando Arós
  • Emilio Ros
  • Jesús García-Gavilan
  • Liming Liang
  • Jordi Salas-Salvadó
  • Miguel A. Martínez-González
  • Frank B. Hu

Background: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a progressive pathophysiological state defined by a cluster of cardiometabolic traits. However, little is known about metabolites that may be predictors of MetS incidence or reversion. Our objective was to identify plasma metabolites associated with MetS incidence or MetS reversion. Methods: The study included 1468 participants without cardiovascular disease (CVD) but at high CVD risk at enrollment from two case-cohort studies nested within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study with baseline metabolomics data. MetS was defined in accordance with the harmonized International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, which include meeting 3 or more thresholds for waist circumference, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. MetS incidence was defined by not having MetS at baseline but meeting the MetS criteria at a follow-up visit. MetS reversion was defined by MetS at baseline but not meeting MetS criteria at a follow-up visit. Plasma metabolome was profiled by LC-MS. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models and elastic net regularized regressions were used to assess the association of 385 annotated metabolites with MetS incidence and MetS reversion after adjusting for potential risk factors. Results: Of the 603 participants without baseline MetS, 298 developed MetS over the median 4.8-year follow-up. Of the 865 participants with baseline MetS, 285 experienced MetS reversion. A total of 103 and 88 individual metabolites were associated with MetS incidence and MetS reversion, respectively, after adjusting for confounders and false discovery rate correction. A metabolomic signature comprised of 77 metabolites was robustly associated with MetS incidence (HR: 1.56 (95 % CI: 1.33–1.83)), and a metabolomic signature of 83 metabolites associated with MetS reversion (HR: 1.44 (95 % CI: 1.25–1.67)), both p < 0.001. The MetS incidence and reversion signatures included several lipids (mainly glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids) and branched-chain amino acids. Conclusion: We identified unique metabolomic signatures, primarily comprised of lipids (including glycolipids and glycerophospholipids) and branched-chain amino acids robustly associated with MetS incidence; and several amino acids and glycerophospholipids associated with MetS reversion. These signatures provide novel insights on potential distinct mechanisms underlying the conditions leading to the incidence or reversion of MetS.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155742
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023

    Research areas

  • Metabolic syndrome, Metabolic syndrome incidence, Metabolic syndrome reversion, Metabolomics, PREDIMED

ID: 378521204