Efficient Quantification of Milk Metabolites from 1H NMR Spectra Using the Signature Mapping (SigMa) Approach: Chemical Shift Library Development for Cows’ Milk and Colostrum

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Cow milk contains essential nutrients for humans, and its bulk composition is usually analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The higher sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can augment the extractible qualitative and quantitative information from milk to nearly 60 compounds, enabling us to monitor the health of cows and milk quality. Proton (1H) NMR spectroscopy produces complex spectra that require expert knowledge for identifying and quantifying metabolites. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible methodology is required to transform complex milk 1H NMR spectra into annotated and quantified milk metabolome data. In this study, standard operating procedures for screening the milk metabolome using 1H NMR spectra are developed. A chemical shift library of 63 milk metabolites was established and implemented in the open-access Signature Mapping (SigMa) software. SigMa is a spectral analysis tool that transforms 1H NMR spectra into a quantitative metabolite table. The applicability of the proposed methodology to whole milk, skim milk, and ultrafiltered milk is demonstrated, and the method is tested on ultrafiltered colostrum samples from dairy cows (n = 88) to evaluate whether metabolic changes in colostrum may reflect the metabolic status of cows.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAnalytical Chemistry
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)1861-1871
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 2024

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© 2024 American Chemical Society.

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