Smoking and stress in the general population in Denmark
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- Smoking and stress in the general population in Denmark
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INTRODUCTION The social pressure placed on smokers today might potentially lead to an increasing level of stress. We investigated if the proportion of persons with high stress level had increased over time more in smokers than in non-smokers.
METHODS Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys of The Capital Region Health Survey conducted in 2010, 2013 and 2017. Survey data were weighted for survey design and non-response, and linked to national register data. Cohens Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) score was used. Logistic regression analyses, based on 136608 citizens' self-reports, were adjusted for sex, age, education level, employment, and alcohol intake (and loneliness, in analysis investigating the associations between tobacco consumption and high stress level).
RESULTS A significantly higher proportion of citizens reported a high stress level in 2017 compared with 2010 and 2013 but there was not a greater increase in smokers than in non-smokers. Daily smoking men had 69% higher odds of reporting perceived high stress level and daily smoking women had 36% higher odds, than never smokers of the same sex. There was a significant trend between higher daily tobacco consumption and a higher proportion of smokers with high stress level.
CONCLUSIONS The increase in high stress level over time occurred independently of smoking status. Daily smokers had the highest odds of perceived high stress level, and a higher daily tobacco consumption was associated with a higher proportion of smokers with high stress level. Smoking cessation programs should, to a higher degree, consider implementing stress-coping elements to prevent relapse.
|Tidsskrift||TOBACCO PREVENTION & CESSATION|
|Status||Udgivet - 2021|