Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella Zoster Virus Serology and Infections in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients During the First Year Posttransplantation

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BACKGROUND: Mumps, measles, rubella, and varicella-zoster viruses (MMRV) may cause severe infections in seronegative adult solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients but can be prevented by vaccination. We aimed to determine MMRV serostatus in adult SOT recipients before and one-year post-transplantation as well as evidence of MMRV infections in a large, prospective cohort of SOT recipients.

METHODS: A prospective study of 1182 adult SOT recipients included in the Management of Posttransplant Infections in Collaborating Hospitals (MATCH) cohort from 2011 to 2017 with a one-year follow-up. Systematic monitoring of MMRV serology was performed prior to transplantation and one-year post-transplantation. PCR was used to confirm viral replication in SOT-recipients presenting with clinical evidence of infection.

RESULTS: Among 1182 adult SOT recipients, 28 (2.4%), 77 (6.5%), 65 (5.5%), and 22 (1.9%) were seronegative for measles, mumps, rubella, and VZV, respectively, and 165 (14%) were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. One-year post-transplantation, 29/823 (3.5%) of seropositive SOT recipients had seroreverted, and 63/111 (57%) of seronegative SOT recipients seroconverted for at least one MMRV virus. No evidence of MMR infections was found, but 8 (0.7%) SOT recipients developed symptoms and had a positive VZV PCR.

CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of SOT recipients were seronegative for at least one of the MMRV viruses. MMRV infections in SOT recipients may disseminate and become fatal, and although only few cases of VZV infection were detected, results from this study suggest increase attention towards vaccination of patients waiting for SOT.

TidsskriftClinical Infectious Diseases
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 2021

ID: 248852428