Legislation of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing in Europe: A Fragmented Regulatory Landscape

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • Louiza Kalokairinou
  • Heidi C Howard
  • Santa Slokenberga
  • Carlos María Romeo-Casabona
  • Eva Fischer
  • Magdalena Flatscher-Thöni
  • R. van Hellemondt
  • J. Juskevicius
  • J. Kapelenska-Pregowska
  • P. Kovac
  • L. Lovrecic
  • H. Nys
  • A. de Paor
  • A. Phillips
  • L. Prudil
  • E. Rial-Sebbag
  • C.M. Romeo Casabona
  • J. Sandor
  • A. Schuster
  • S. Soini
  • K.H. Søvig
  • D. Stoffel
  • T. Titma
  • T. Trokanas
  • P. Borry

Despite the increasing availability of direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, it is currently unclear how such services are regulated in Europe, due to the lack of EU or national legislation specifically addressing this issue. In this article, we provide an overview of laws that could potentially impact the regulation of DTC genetic testing in 26 European countries, namely Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Emphasis is placed on provisions relating to medical supervision, genetic counselling and informed consent. Our results indicate that currently there is a wide spectrum of laws regarding genetic testing in Europe. There are countries (e.g. France and Germany) which essentially ban DTC genetic testing, while in others (e.g. Luxembourg and Poland) DTC genetic testing may only be restricted by general laws, usually regarding health care services and patients' rights.

TidsskriftJournal of Community Genetics
Udgave nummer2
Sider (fra-til)117-132
Antal sider16
StatusUdgivet - 2018


  • Direct-to-consumer genetic tests, Genetic counselling, In vitro diagnostic medical devices, Informed consent, Medical supervision, Regulation

ID: 185001252