Synergistic roles of climate warming and human occupation in Patagonian megafaunal extinctions during the Last Deglaciation

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

Dokumenter

  • Jessica L. Metcalf
  • Chris Turney
  • Ross Barnett
  • Fabiana Martin
  • Sarah C. Bray
  • Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup Mouatt
  • Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi
  • Daniel Loponte
  • Matías Medina
  • Mariana De Nigris
  • Teresa Civalero
  • Pablo Marcelo Fernández
  • Alejandra Gasco
  • Victor Duran
  • Kevin L. Seymour
  • Clara Otaola
  • Adolfo Gil
  • Rafael Paunero
  • Francisco J. Prevosti
  • Corey J. A. Bradshaw
  • Jane C. Wheeler
  • Luis Borrero
  • Jeremy J. Austin
  • Alan Cooper

The causes of Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions (60,000 to 11,650 years ago, hereafter 60 to 11.65 ka) remain contentious, with major phases coinciding with both human arrival and climate change around the world. The Americas provide a unique opportunity to disentangle these factors as human colonization took place over a narrow time frame (~15 to 14.6 ka) but during contrasting temperature trends across each continent. Unfortunately, limited data sets in South America have so far precluded detailed comparison. We analyze genetic and radiocarbon data from 89 and 71 Patagonian megafaunal bones, respectively, more than doubling the high-quality Pleistocene megafaunal radiocarbon data sets from the region. We identify a narrow megafaunal extinction phase 12,280 ± 110 years ago, some 1 to 3 thousand years after initial human presence in the area. Although humans arrived immediately prior to a cold phase, the Antarctic Cold Reversal stadial, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until the stadial finished and the subsequent warming phase commenced some 1 to 3 thousand years later. The increased resolution provided by the Patagonian material reveals that the sequence of climate and extinction events in North and South America were temporally inverted, but in both cases, megafaunal extinctions did not occur until human presence and climate warming coincided. Overall, metapopulation processes involving subpopulation connectivity on a continental scale appear to have been critical for megafaunal species survival of both climate change and human impacts.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftScience Advances
Vol/bind2
Udgave nummer6
Sider (fra-til)e1501682
Antal sider8
ISSN2375-2548
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2016

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