On the Mechanism of the Formal [2+2] Cycloaddition - Retro-electrocyclization (CA-RE) Reaction
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The [2+2] cycloaddition - retro-electrocyclization (CA-RE) reaction is a "click-like" protocol for facile synthesis of donor-acceptor chromophores from an alkyne and tetracyanoethylene. Herein we shed light on the mechanism of this reaction by detailed kinetics studies using H-1 NMR spectroscopy. By considering several experiments simultaneously, a variety of mechanistic models was evaluated. Surprisingly, a model in which the final 1,1,4,4-tetracyanobuta-1,3-diene product promoted the first step was the only one that described well the experimental data. This autocatalysis model also involved a non-concerted, stepwise formation of the cyclobutene cycloaddition adduct. By proper choice of conditions, we were able to generate the transient cyclobutene in sufficient amount to verify it as an intermediate using C-13 NMR spectroscopy. For its final retro-electrocyclization step, simple first-order kinetics was observed and only minor solvent dependence, which indicates a concerted reaction.
|Tidsskrift||Chemistry: A European Journal|
|Status||Udgivet - 2023|
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