Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskriftTidsskriftartikelForskningfagfællebedømt

  • E. Brøndum
  • John Michael Hasenkam
  • Niels H. Secher
  • Bertelsen, Mads Frost
  • C. Grøndahl
  • K.K. Petersen
  • Buhl, Rikke
  • C. Aalkjaer
  • U. Baandrup
  • H. Nygaard
  • Morten Holdgaard Smerup
  • F. Stegmann
  • E. Sloth
  • K.H. Østergaard
  • P. Nissen
  • M. Runge
  • K. Pitsillides
  • T. Wang
How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P < 0.01), and jugular flow ceased as the jugular cross-sectional area increased to 3.2 +/- 0.6 cm(2) (P < 0.01), corresponding to accumulation of approximately 1.2 l of blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP
TidsskriftAmerican Journal of Physiology: Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Udgave nummer4
Sider (fra-til)R1058-R1065
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 2009

ID: 19546101