Changes in cardiac time intervals over a decade and the risk of incident heart failure: The Copenhagen City Heart Study

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  • Alhakak, Alia Saed
  • Flemming Javier Olsen
  • Kristoffer Grundtvig Skaarup
  • Mats Christian Højbjerg Lassen
  • Niklas Dyrby Johansen
  • Caroline Espersen
  • Ulrik Abildgaard
  • Gorm Boje Jensen
  • Peter Schnohr
  • Jacob Louis Marott
  • Peter Søgaard
  • Rasmus Møgelvang
  • Biering-Sørensen, Tor

Background: The cardiac time intervals include the isovolumic contraction time (IVCT), the left ventricular ejection time (LVET), the isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and the combination of all the cardiac time intervals in the myocardial performance index (MPI) (defined as [(IVCT+IVRT)/LVET)]. Whether the cardiac time intervals change over time and which clinical factors that accelerate these changes is not well-established. Additionally, whether these changes are associated with subsequent heart failure (HF), remains unknown. Methods: We investigated participants from the general population (n = 1064) who had an echocardiographic examination including color tissue Doppler imaging performed in both the 4th and 5th Copenhagen City Heart Study. The examinations were performed 10.5 years apart. Results: The IVCT, LVET, IVRT and MPI increased significantly over time. None of the investigated clinical factors were associated with increase in IVCT. Systolic blood pressure (standardized β= − 0.09) and male sex (standardized β= − 0.08) were associated with an accelerated decrease in LVET. Age (standardized β=0.26), male sex (standardized β=0.06), diastolic blood pressure (standardized β=0.08), and smoking (standardized β=0.08) were associated with an increase in IVRT, while HbA1c (standardized β= − 0.06) was associated with a decrease in IVRT. Increasing IVRT over a decade was associated with an increased risk of subsequent HF in participants aged <65 years (per 10 ms increase: HR 1.33; 95%CI (1.02–1.72), p = 0.034). Conclusion: The cardiac time increased significantly over time. Several clinical factors accelerated these changes. An increase in IVRT was associated with an increased risk of subsequent HF in participants aged <65 years.

TidsskriftInternational Journal of Cardiology
Sider (fra-til)141-148
Antal sider8
StatusUdgivet - 2023

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
ASA was funded by a research grant from the Gangsted Foundation. The sponsor had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the article.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)

ID: 350996458