Molecular adaptations in human subcutaneous adipose tissue after ten weeks of endurance exercise training in healthy males

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Simon Riis, Britt Christensen, Birgitte Nellemann, Andreas Ruch Moller, Anna Sofie Husted, Steen B. Pedersen, Thue W. Schwartz, Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen, Niels Jessen

Endurance exercise training induces adaptations in metabolically active organs, but adaptations in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) remains incompletely understood. On the basis of animal studies, we hypothesized that endurance exercise training would increase the expression of proteins involved in lipolysis and glucose uptake in scAT. To test these hypotheses, 19 young and healthy males were randomized to either endurance exercise training (TR; age 18-24 yr; BMI 19.0-25.4 kg/m(2)) or a nonexercising control group (CON; age 21-35 yr; BMI 20.5-28.8 kg/m(2)). Abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies and blood were obtained at rest before and after intervention. By using Western blotting and PCR, we determined expression of lipid droplet-associated proteins, various proteins involved in substrate metabolism, and mRNA abundance of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Adipose tissue insulin sensitivity was determined from fasting plasma insulin and nonesterified fatty acids (adipose tissue insulin resistance index; Adipo-IR). Adipo-IR improved in TR compared with CON (P = 0.03). This was accompanied by increased insulin receptor (IR) protein expression in scAT with a 1.54-fold (SD 0.79) change from baseline in TR vs. 0.85 (SD 0.30) in CON (P = 0.007). Additionally, hexokinase II (HKII) and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) protein increased in TR compared with CON (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04, respectively). We did not observe changes in lipid droplet-associated proteins or mRNA abundance of GPCRs. Collectively, 10 weeks of endurance exercise training improved adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, which was accompanied by increased IR, HKII, and SDHA protein expression in scAT. We suggest that these adaptations contribute to an improved metabolic flexibility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to investigate the molecular adaptations in human subcutaneous adipose tissue (scAT) after endurance exercise training compared with a nonexercising control group. We show that endurance exercise training improves insulin sensitivity in human scAT, and this is accompanied by increased expression of insulin receptor, hexokinase II, and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A. Collectively, our data suggest that endurance exercise training induces molecular adaptations in human scAT, which may contribute to an improved metabolic flexibility.
OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Applied Physiology
Vol/bind126
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)569-577
ISSN8750-7587
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2019

ID: 216928064